Four Important Blocks of The Last Decade

Vol 2 | Issue 1 | January-June 2021 | Page 54-62 | J Balavenkatasubramanian, Gurumoorthi Palanichamy, Senthil Kumar Balasubramanian, Madhanmohan Chandramohan, Vinoth Kumar Subramanian, Satish Raja Selvam Parameswaran


Authors: J Balavenkatasubramanian [1], Gurumoorthi Palanichamy [1], Senthil Kumar Balasubramanian [1], Madhanmohan Chandramohan [1], Vinoth Kumar Subramanian [1], Satish Raja Selvam Parameswaran [3]

[1] Department of Anaesthesia, Ganga Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Gurumoorthi Palanichamy, Ganga Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
E-mail: drpgurumoorthi@gmail.com


Introduction


Ultrasonography (USG) guided regional anaesthesia has become the standard practice due to its improved success rate and decreased complications. With the advent of USG regional anaesthesia has flourished in a way that every surgery can be supplemented with a regional block as a part of multimodal analgesia. USG guided regional anaesthesia became rampant in the last decade with many newer inter-fascial plane blocks involving the paraspinal, chest wall and abdominal wall being introduced. Also new approaches for the plexus blocks are being established with improved safety and success. Here in this educational article, we are discussing the intricacies of the USG guided Costoclavicular approach of brachial plexus block, PEricapsular Nerve Group (PENG) block, Serratus Plane block (SPB) and Supra inguinal Fascia Iliaca Block (SIFICB). The costoclavicular approach for brachial plexus block is phrenic nerve sparing and still consistently block all the nerves arising from the cords, making it a safer option in certain population of patient with respiratory compromise. PENG block was introduced in the last decade for providing analgesia for the hip orthopedic procedures and advantage of this block is that there is no motor involvement without any major complications. The SPB is a one of chest wall block used for providing analgesia to the anterolateral chest especially for breast surgery and pain management in rib fractures. Being superficial and technically easier using USG, SPB has been included in the standard pain management for chest trauma. USG guided SIFICB introduced was introduced in 2011 as a novel approach to block the major nerves of lumbar plexus anteriorly but it gained popularity in the recent past for its ability to block femoral nerve, lateral femoral cutanoues nerve and possibly obturator nerve. With this block the above mentioned nerves can be blocked easily without any complications of classical approach for lumbar plexus block.

1- Costoclavicular Brachial Plexus Block– A Phrenic Nerve Sparing Novel Block

2- Serratus Plane Block

3-  PENG [PEricapsular Nerve Group] Block

4- Suprainguinal Fascia Iliaca Block– Is It The True 3 In 1 Block?


References


Costoclavicular Brachial Plexus Block– A Phrenic Nerve Sparing Novel Block
1. Silva MD. The costoclavicular syndrome: a ‘new cause’. Ann Rheum Dis. 1986; 45: 916-20
2. Li JW, Songthamwat B, Samy W, Sala-Blanch X, Karmakar MK. Ultrasound-Guided Costoclavicular Brachial Plexus Block: Sonoanatomy, Technique, and Block Dynamics. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2017 Mar/Apr;42(2):233-240.
3. Wong MH, Karmakar MK, Mok LYH, Songthamwat B, Samy W. Minimum effective volume of 0.5% ropivacaine for ultrasound-guided costoclavicular brachial plexus block: A dose finding study. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2020 Sep;37(9):780-786. doi: 10.1097/EJA.0000000000001287. PMID: 32740321.
4. Koyyalamudi V, Langley NR, Harbell MW, Kraus MB, Craner RC, Seamans DP. Evaluating the spread of costoclavicular brachial plexus block: an anatomical study. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2021 Jan;46(1):31-34. doi: 10.1136/rapm-2020-101585. Epub 2020 Oct 6. PMID: 33024005.
5. Oh C, Noh C, Eom H, Lee S, Park S, Lee S, Shin YS, Ko Y, Chung W, Hong B. Costoclavicular brachial plexus block reduces hemidiaphragmatic paralysis more than supraclavicular brachial plexus block: retrospective, propensity score matched cohort study. Korean J Pain. 2020 Apr 1;33(2):144-152.

Serratus Plane Block
1. Blanco R, Parras T, McDonnell JG, et al. Serratus plane block: a novel ultrasound-guided thoracic wall nerve block. Anaesthesia. 2013;68:1107-1113
2. Piracha MM, Thorp SL, Puttanniah V, et al. ‘‘A tale of two planes’’: deep versus superficial serratus plane block for postmatectomy pain syndrome. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2017;42:259-262
3. Jadon A, Jain P. Serratus Anterior Plane Block-An Analgesic Technique for Multiple Rib Fractures: A Case Series. American J Anesth Clin Res. 2017;3(1): 001-004
4. Mayes J, Davison E, Panahi P, et al. An anatomical evaluation of the serratus anterior plane block. Anaesthesia. 2016;71:1064-1069
5. ChinKJ.Thoracic wall blocks: from paravertebral to retrolaminar to serratus to erector spinae and back again—a review of evidence. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2019;33:67-77
6. Sayan Nath, Devesh Bhoj, Virender Kumar mohan et al. USG-guided continuous erector spinae block as a primary mode of perioperative analgesia in open posterolateral thoracotomy: A report of two cases. Saudi J Anaesthesia,2018 July-Sep;12(3):471-474
7. Chong M, et al. The serratus plane block for postoperative analgesia in breast and thoracic surgery: a systematic review and meta- analysis Reg Anesth Pain Med 2019;44:1066–1074. doi:10.1136/rapm-2019-100982

PENG [PEricapsular Nerve Group] Block
1. Bugada D, Bellini V, Lorini LF, Mariano ER. Update on Selective Regional Analgesia for Hip Surgery Patients. Anesthesiol Clin. 2018;36(3):403-415. doi:10.1016/j.anclin.2018.04.001
2. Short AJ, Barnett JJG, Gofeld M, et al. Anatomic Study of Innervation of the Anterior Hip Capsule: Implication for Image-Guided Intervention. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2018;43(2):186-192. doi:10.1097/AAP.0000000000000701
3. Nielsen TD, Moriggl B, Søballe K, Kolsen-Petersen JA, Børglum J, Bendtsen TF. A cadaveric study of ultrasound-guided subpectineal injectate spread around the obturator nerve and its hip articular branches. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2017;42(3):357-361. doi:10.1097/AAP.0000000000000587
4. Girón-Arango L, Peng PWH, Chin KJ, Brull R, Perlas A. Pericapsular Nerve Group (PENG) Block for Hip Fracture. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2018;43(8):859-863. doi:10.1097/AAP.0000000000000847
5. Bilal B, Öksüz G, Boran ÖF, Topak D, Doğar F. High volume pericapsular nerve group (PENG) block for acetabular fracture surgery: A new horizon for novel block. J Clin Anesth. 2020;62. doi:10.1016/j.jclinane.2020.109702
6. Kukreja P, Avila A, Northern T, Dangle J, Kolli S, Kalagara H. A Retrospective Case Series of Pericapsular Nerve Group (PENG) Block for Primary Versus Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty Analgesia. Cureus. 2020;12(5). doi:10.7759/cureus.8200
7. Acharya U, Lamsal R. Pericapsular Nerve Group Block: An Excellent Option for Analgesia for Positional Pain in Hip Fractures. Case Rep Anesthesiol. 2020;2020:1-3. doi:10.1155/2020/1830136
8. Mistry T, Sonawane KB, Kuppusamy E. PENG block: Points to ponder. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2019;44(3):423-424. doi:10.1136/rapm-2018-100327
9. Enes Aydin M, Borulu F, Ates I, Kara S, Ahiskalioglu A. Letters to the Editor A Novel Indication of Pericapsular Nerve Group (PENG) Block: Surgical Anesthesia for Vein Ligation and Stripping. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2020;34:843-845. doi:10.1053/j.jvca.2019.08.006
10. Yu HC, Moser JJ, Chu AY, Montgomery SH, Brown N, Endersby RVW. Inadvertent quadriceps weakness following the pericapsular nerve group (PENG) block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2019;44(5):611-613. doi:10.1136/rapm-2018-100354
11. Morrison C, Brown B, Lin DY, Jaarsma R, Kroon H. Analgesia and anesthesia using the pericapsular nerve group block in hip surgery and hip fracture: A scoping review. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2021;46(2):169-175. doi:10.1136/rapm-2020-101826

Suprainguinal Fascia Iliaca Block– Is It The True 3 In 1 Block?
1. Hebbard P, Ivanusic J, Sha S. Ultrasound-guided suprainguinal fascia iliaca block: a cadaveric evaluation of a novel approach. Anaesthesia 2011; 66: 300e5.
2. Dalens B, Vanneuville G, Tanguy A. Comparison of the fascia iliaca compartment block with the 3-in-1 block in children. Anesth Analg 1989; 69: 705e13.
3. Stevens M, Harrison G, McGrail M. A modified fascia iliaca compartment block has significant morphine-sparing effect after total hip arthroplasty. Anesth Intensive Care 2007; 35: 949e52
4. Vermeylen K, Soetens F, Leunen I, Hadzic A, Van Boxtael S, Pomés J, Prats-Galino A, Van de Velde M, Neyrinck A, Sala-Blanch X. The effect of the volume of supra-inguinal injected solution on the spread of the injectate under the fascia iliaca: a preliminary study. J Anesth. 2018 Dec;32(6):908-913. doi: 10.1007/s00540-018-2558-9. Epub 2018 Sep 24. PMID: 30250982.
5. Singh, Harsimran, Jones, David. Hourglass-Pattern Recognition Simplifies Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2013;38(5):467-8. doi:10.1097/AAP.0b013e3182a1f772.


How to Cite this Article: Balavenkatasubramanian J, Palanichamy G, Balasubramanian S, Chandramohan M, Subramanian VK, Parameswaran SRS | Four Important Blocks of The Last Decade | International Journal of Regional Anaesthesia | January-June 2021; 2(1): 54-62.

 


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