Current Concepts in Pain Management of Total Knee Replacement Surgeries: A Narrative Review

Vol 3 | Issue 2 | July-December 2022 | Page 56-75 | Kartik Sonawane, Jagannathan Balavenkatasubramanian

DOI: 10.13107/ijra.2022.v03i02.057

Authors: Kartik Sonawane [1], Jagannathan Balavenkatasubramanian [2]

[1] Department of Anaesthesia, Ganga Medical Centre & Hospitals Pvt. Ltd. , Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Jagannathan Balavenkatasubramanian,
Department of Anaesthesia, Ganga Medical Centre & Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.


Total knee replacement/arthroplasty (TKR/TKA) is considered a life-changing surgery as it not only corrects the pathology and associated joint deformity but also renders the patient pain-free allowing them to perform activities of daily living as before. Such favorable outcomes depend entirely on the perioperative pain management strategies. Structuring such strategies requires background knowledge of the goals set, the process of pain generation before and after the surgery, and innervations of the pain-generating components involved in each surgical step.
The multifactorial origin of TKR pain requires a multidimensional pain management strategy such as multimodal analgesia (MMA). It should incorporate all the essential ingredients that target each step of the pain generation process. Apart from pharmacological agents and nonpharmacological techniques, regional analgesia (RA) plays a very important role as an adjunct to MMA to provide quality analgesia that promotes enhanced recovery and mobility. However, the choice of RA technique remains dependent on its motor-sparing effect, procedure-specific analgesic coverage, opioid-sparing effect, and suitability for enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS). Psychological analgesia is also an important aspect of MMA, aiding in resolving psychological concerns and postoperative pain management and empowering patients in their own pain management process by encouraging active participation. In addition to providing appropriate pain management services, assessing expected outcomes in the postoperative period is also important to close loopholes and provide rescue analgesics when needed.
This narrative review article highlights important aspects of pain management strategies and the essential requirements for implementing them to achieve desired outcomes. We believe this article will help readers design or modify their pain management strategy to meet all of their goals.
Keywords: Total knee replacement, Total knee arthroplasty, Pain management, Motor-sparing regional anesthetic technique, Multimodal analgesia, Procedure-specific analgesia.


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How to Cite this Article: Sonawane K, Balavenkatasubramanian J | Current Concepts in Pain Management of Total Knee Replacement Surgeries: A Narrative Review | International Journal of Regional Anaesthesia | July-December 2022; 3(2): 56-75.

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Current Concepts in Postoperative Pain Management Surgeries of Hip Joint: A Narrative Review

Vol 3 | Issue 2 | July-December 2022 | Page 49-55 | Anju Gupta, Mallika Kaushal, Amit Malviya, Shalender Kumar, Sandeep Diwan

DOI: 10.13107/ijra.2022.v03i02.056

Authors: Anju Gupta [1], Mallika Kaushal [1], Amit Malviya [1], Shalender Kumar [1], Sandeep Diwan [2]

[1] Department of Anaesthesia, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
[2] Department of Anaesthesia, Sancheti Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Anju Gupta,
Assistant Professor, Department of Anaesthesia, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.


Hip surgery is a common surgical procedure in the elderly and leads to significant pain postoperatively. The hip joint has a complex innervation which is unlikely to be covered with any single modality of pain relief. Multimodal analgesia has been critical in facilitating early recovery and rehabilitation in these patients. Regional analgesia is an important component of multimodal analgesia regimens and is instrumental in achieving optimal patient outcomes. Single shot or continuous central or peripheral nerve blocks provide effective and safe postoperative analgesia, lower opioid consumption, faster rehabilitation, and a high level of patient satisfaction. An ideal regional anaesthesia technique for hip surgery should be motor sparing while providing effective perioperative pain relief. Regional anaesthesia has seen enormous growth in the recent past due to advances in technology and research. These blocks have shown analgesic efficacy, have an opioid-sparing effect, and enable better patient positioning for central neuraxial blocks. Some of the novel interfascial plane blocks like Pericapsular Nerve Group (PENG) block are now being explored for hip analgesia. Within a few years of being described, these novel nerve blocks have seen tremendous favour in the literature and are being extensively used in the current practice of analgesia for hip surgery. In the present review, we aim to discuss the various modalities of analgesia which have been utilised in the past and would discuss few of the newer blocks for hip surgery.
Keywords: Nerve blocks, Ultrasonography, Analgesics, Total hip arthroplasty, Fascia illiaca block,
Multimodal analgesia, Transmuscular, Quadratus lumborum block


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28. Singh S, Ranjan R, Lalin D. A new indication of erector spinae plane block for perioperative analgesia is total replacement surgery – A case report. Indian J Anaesth. 2019;63(4):310-1
29. Kinjo S, Schultz A. Continuous lumbar erector spinae plane block for postoperative pain management in revision hip surgery: a case report. Rev Bras Anestesiol. 2019;69(4):420-2
30. Ahiskalioglu A, Tulgar S, Celik M, Ozer Z, Alici HA, Aydin ME. Lumbar erector spinae plane block as a main anesthetic method for hip surgery in high risk elderly patients: initial experience with a magnetic resonance imaging. Eurasian J Med. 2020;52(1):16-20
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34. Tiwari P, Bhatia R, Asthana V, Maheshwari R. Role of ultrasound-guided lumbar “Erector spinae plane block” and ultrasound-guided transmuscular “Quadratus lumborum block” for postoperative analgesia after hip surgeries: A randomized, controlled study. Indian Anaesth Forum. 2021;22:60-6
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How to Cite this Article: Gupta A, Kaushal M, Malviya A, Kumar S, Diwan S | Current Concepts in Postoperative Pain Management Surgeries of Hip Joint: A Narrative Review | International Journal of Regional Anaesthesia | July-December 2022; 3(2): 49-55.

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Regional Anaesthesia in Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Pathways – A Quintessential Component

Vol 2 | Issue 2 | July-December 2021 | Page 87-91 | Abhijit S. Nair, Sandeep Diwan

DOI: 10.13107/ijra.2021.v02i02.033

Authors: Abhijit S. Nair [1], Sandeep Diwan [2]

[1] Department of Anaesthesia, Ibra Hospital, Ministry of Health-Oman, Ibra, Sultanate of Oman.
[2] Department of Anaesthesia, Sancheti Hospital, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Address of Correspondence
Dr. Abhijit S. Nair, Department of Anaesthesia, Ibra Hospital, Ministry of Health-Oman, Ibra-414, Sultanate of Oman.


Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is a multimodal, perioperative care pathway designed to achieve early recovery for patients undergoing major surgery. [1] Initially described by Henry Kehlet in 1995 for colonic surgeries, the enhanced recovery pathways have now evolved and are now validated for more than 30 different types of surgery which include but are not limited to emergency laparotomy, neonatal surgeries, and lower segment cesarean sections. [2] Not only is the patient benefited from this by having an enhanced recovery and early discharge from the hospital, the cost of treatment is reduced and also leads to more turnover of patients thereby reducing the waiting list of patients scheduled for various surgeries. [3]


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How to Cite this Article: Nair AS, Diwan S | Regional Anaesthesia in Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Pathways – A Quintessential Component | International Journal of Regional Anaesthesia | July-December 2021; 2(2): 87-91.

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